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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in This observational survey study involved women, of whom were over 50 years old.
The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly years and over 60 years. For Sex was definitely important and very important for Most women over 50 years old Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month.
Less than half of the women over 50 years old Women in the group of years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women.
Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e. The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life. Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among early postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women [ 1 ]. In Poland as well as in western countries sexuality is often considered the domain of the young, and the idea of older women having and enjoying sex seems to bother many people [ 23 ].
It is still more acceptable for older men than older women to have sexual life. There is a reluctance to talk about sexual activity Poland sex women s. mature and older women. Consequently, there is resistance of them to share about sex life, which is considered marginal issue in that age group. Female sexual function is a complex of physiological, psychological, social, and cultural stimuli, which can affect various aspects of sexual response such as desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm [ 5 ].
Menopause requires psychological and physical adjustments because of the occurring ificant hormonal changes. Sexuality is one of the aspects that undergoes the most profound modifications [ 6 ]. Early menopausal transition is marked by increased variability in menstrual cycle length, defined as a persistent difference of seven days or more in the length of consecutive cycles.
The late menopausal transition is marked by the occurrence of amenorrhoea of 60 days or longer. Menstrual cycles in the late menopausal transition are characterised by increased variability in cycle length, extreme fluctuations in hormonal levels, and increased prevalence of anovulation [ 7 — 9 ]. The median age of menopause among Caucasian women from industrialised countries range between 50 and 52 years and at onset of the perimenopause is The average age of women at the time of menopause is 51 y in the US. In Poland the overall median age at natural menopause is Variation in age at menopause revealed the age range from 45 y to 56 y [ 12 ].
The process involves the gradual build-up of ovarian hormonal insufficiency, end of menstruation, and the end of fertile age [ 13 ]. The syndrome may include genital symptoms of dryness, burning, and irritation; sexual symptoms of lack of lubrication, discomfort or pain, and impaired function; and urinary symptoms of urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infections [ 1415 ].
These changes are not synonymous with the disappearance of sexual needs. The entire early postmenopause phase lasts approximately five to eight years. During that period follicle stimulating hormone FSH continues to increase and estradiol continues to decrease until approximately two years after the final menstrual period, after which the levels of each of these hormones stabilise. The late postmenopause is estimated to start about eight years after the final menstrual period [ 16 ] and is represented more by changes of the somatic than reproductive systems [ Poland sex women s.14 ].
Reduced levels of oestrogens and androgen are associated with dramatic alterations in genital tissue structure, including the nerve network, as well as the response to physiological modulators. Furthermore, oestrogen and androgen deficiency is associated with reduced expression of sex steroid receptors and most importantly with attenuated genital blood flow and lubrication in response to pelvic nerve stimulation [ 17 ]. A massive and growing market for drugs and devices to treat sexual problems targets older adults, including women. There is limited information about sexual behaviours among older adults and about how sexual activities change with aging and illness [ 16 ].
The aim the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population inas a continuation of the studies of Prof. Zbigniew Lew-Starowicz, which were conducted in and It was an observational survey study that was conducted among people aged from Poland sex women s. to over 70 y. The sample was representative for the Polish population. The study involved women, of Poland sex women s. were over 50 years old. Therefore, for the purpose of this analysis we focused only on the female population that was stratified to the following age groups of: y and over 50 y.
The last group was stratified to the subgroups y and over 60 y y, and over 70 y. The main focus was put on the underlying differences and changes between above age groups, mainly y early postmenopausal and over 60 y late postmenopausal. The parameters used to describe quality data were the following: percentage and of events, and to characterise quantitative data: average, median, standard deviation, minimal, and maximal values.
Additionally, normality test and Kolgomorov-Smirnov statistics were performed. Statistical reasoning was based on statistical ificance. Most women over 50 y lived in villages In small and middle size cities lived Most of them were married Most widows were observed in the group over 60 y Most of them had children In terms of education, Most women In terms of health issues In the group of women over 60 y cardiovascular problems and osteoarticular problems were more often observed. Women in the group of y declared problems with the endocrine system, more often than other age groups.
There was no ificant difference between the age groups and the prevalence of health problems, besides the fact that women aged y were less likely to declare that they suffered from chronic diseases than other age groups and took less medication. In addition, in none of the analysed age groups disease diagnosis or taken medication caused change in their sexual life. Most women over 50 y were heterosexual Sex played at least a moderately important role in life for There were no ificant differences among the subgroups. Most women over 50 y Graphically, the are shown below Fig.
Among inactive women over 50 y, There were no statistically ificant differences in the subgroups. Among health issues most women had cardiovascular Endocrine system problems were reported by Lack of interest in sex was reported by Issues with health were not the important reason for being inactive and were reported only by one woman 2. In regards of health issues, sexually inactive women over 60 y reported mainly cardiovascular Issues with endocrine system were reported by 6. Generally, In addition, It could be assumed that lack of a partner was the main reason for stopping sexual activity among women over 50 y.
Women in the group y were more likely to feel the desire to have intercourse every Poland sex women s. or several times a week in comparison to women aged over 50 y. In addition, women in the subgroup over 60 y more often declared that in general they do not have such feelings Table I. Moreover, it was observed that women over 70 y much more often declared to feel the desire for sexual intercourse several times a week Regardless age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times in a month. Regarding the assessment of intercourse frequency, women in the group of y statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse that they had is too low.
Women in groups y and over 60 y more often than younger ones had problems with the assessment Table IV. No ificant differences between all analysed groups were found in terms of the frequency of having orgasm as well as favourite positions during intercourse. There were also no statically relevant differences regarding how the women reach orgasm among all analysed groups.
The data regarding groups y and over 60 y are presented in Figure 4. There were also no statistically relevant differences regarding masturbation and its frequency among all analysed groups. Moreover, all the age groups did not differ in terms of the content and with whom they realise the sexual fantasies.
Less than half of the women over 50 y In addition, there was a trend showing that women over the age of 70 y were much more likely to use sexual toolsPoland sex women s.
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Most common sex fantasies in Poland